All About Security From Sociology Viewpoint
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Security Priorities of Citizens in Various Zones of Tehran
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
With emphasis on security models and considering utilization mode of various city places in Tehran, this survey studies the citizens' status in these places in regard of their security priorities

Police, Security and Family Institution
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
In modern society, family is not an autonomous and self governed institution and essentially depends on other institutions to supply many of its requirements, as it needs the police to provide security.

The Analysis of Relationship Between Social Conditions and Security Discourses
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
This article attempts to study the type of prevalent discourse in securitization of society with emphasis on social conditions

The police perspective; security and social capital
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
The police as one of the main supporters of security have a remarkable place and there is no doubt about perspective of its future role and function.

The Analysis of Relationship Between Situations of Walfare and Societal Security, A Study in Tehran
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
This research is studying the societal security with emphasis on welfare status variable and investigating the rate societal security at present conditions


Security and Society I


Societal security is a concept that introduced by Copenhagen school in 90s to security literature and had a great attention. Because national security was the vanguard until then and safety of majority who devoted to regimen was considered as security of all people and groups in society. There was rarely any discussion about inequality, injustice and discrimination about minorities and in many cases security meant as coercion, intimidation, severe control, restrictions and prevention of their measures. By presentation of societal security right to security was recognized for all social identities and human varieties.
Thus societal security emerged by manifest opposition with national security. Societal security was to providing security for minorities and those social groups who are not coordinated with national security and in many cases governors talk about them as enemies and national threats. But modern theorists say that their purpose to introduce societal security is not opposition to national security and they consider it as a supplement for deficiencies and defects of national security. Indeed, national security with emphasis on majority has somehow ignored minority and societal security with attention to minority identity seeks rebirth of their human and social rights. Therefore, each parts and groups that set apart from majority and their identity has disregarded because of this detachment (such as religious, ethnic, racial minorities) are referent object of societal security (referent object means security for whom). But "societal security in sociology is a refuge that societies can reach to comfort and tranquility by it and can do their activities and desirably shape the process of social life under it. So the societal security doesn't necessarily reduce to identity risks and doesn't define with opposition to other identities. Special function of societal security is not just preservation of feature such as language, customs, traditions and religion (as Copenhagen school emphasizes) but societal security is involved in any kind of social interactions cost that results in vanishing society's comfort and its members; examples are domination of interactions of instrumental rationality in primary relationships, overshadowing of communicative actions in invasion of media propaganda, superiority of competitive relations in interactions, radical ethnocentrism, intellectual stereotypes, norm prescriptions that faze the peace of societies and define them as opposites of each other, make serious dangers for their freedom and independence and by spreading adversities divest their comfort (Navidnia: 2009, 80)". "Since societal security doesn’t reduce only to identity, it can not realized just by flowing of beliefs, customs traditions and so on. Societal security has software and cultural aspect, and needs hardware, equipment and arms aspect as much. Societal security determines life chance, life style and life politics in three levels survival, satisfaction and beauty (Navidnia: 2009, 82)".

Source: Navidnia, Manijeh (2009) "Societal Security", Tehran: Research Institute of Strategic Studies.
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