All About Security From Sociology Viewpoint
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Security Priorities of Citizens in Various Zones of Tehran
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
With emphasis on security models and considering utilization mode of various city places in Tehran, this survey studies the citizens' status in these places in regard of their security priorities

Police, Security and Family Institution
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
In modern society, family is not an autonomous and self governed institution and essentially depends on other institutions to supply many of its requirements, as it needs the police to provide security.

The Analysis of Relationship Between Social Conditions and Security Discourses
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
This article attempts to study the type of prevalent discourse in securitization of society with emphasis on social conditions

The police perspective; security and social capital
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
The police as one of the main supporters of security have a remarkable place and there is no doubt about perspective of its future role and function.

The Analysis of Relationship Between Situations of Walfare and Societal Security, A Study in Tehran
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
This research is studying the societal security with emphasis on welfare status variable and investigating the rate societal security at present conditions


Security and Referent Object


Society is a system that organizes functions of various institutions and organizations and their integration. Thus, Societal Security encompasses a broad and large area that its security dimensions like job security / food security / health security / civil security / emotional security and so, is equal to number of functions of society institutions.

In other words, referent object of societal security (security for whom) is community or society and providing security to it requires various sectors of society benefit from safety. Therefore, societal security has a larger performance range than national security. So national security has focused on government's maintaining the sovereignty and geographic territory. But societal security has attention to safeguard and protect all society's groups and organizations as independent units.
"Copenhagen School… believes that referent object of societal security is major identity group including ethnic, religious and national groups and defines threats as risks that menace identity… Considering the semantic field of security in sociology, type of threats is not a certain and indisputable criteria for classification… But the referent object is still applicable and useful as a diagnosis criterion… In sociology, to not falling societal security into reductionism (as we see in Copenhagen School) we must consider the referent object of security as just community unit… But since there are different understandings about the concept of "community", we must have a conceptual express of it… Community is gathering of people who are recognized as an independent social unit. By this definition, all crowds like family, office members, relatives, doctors, pacifists, Muslims, artists, women, youths, liberals, etc. are included… Talking from community here, we mean the independent unit that rooms some people with common features in it. We consider the independent unit in its epistemological and ontological meaning (Navidnia: 2009, 70)".
Thus, from the perspective of sociology, societal security can not be a subset of national security, but it has a range as wide as collective life, and any group or organization could be its referent object, as a unit independent from government.

Source: Navidnia, Manijeh (2009) "Societal Security", Tehran: Research Institute of Strategic Studies.
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