All About Security From Sociology Viewpoint
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Security Priorities of Citizens in Various Zones of Tehran
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
With emphasis on security models and considering utilization mode of various city places in Tehran, this survey studies the citizens' status in these places in regard of their security priorities

Police, Security and Family Institution
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
In modern society, family is not an autonomous and self governed institution and essentially depends on other institutions to supply many of its requirements, as it needs the police to provide security.

The Analysis of Relationship Between Social Conditions and Security Discourses
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
This article attempts to study the type of prevalent discourse in securitization of society with emphasis on social conditions

The police perspective; security and social capital
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
The police as one of the main supporters of security have a remarkable place and there is no doubt about perspective of its future role and function.

The Analysis of Relationship Between Situations of Walfare and Societal Security, A Study in Tehran
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
This research is studying the societal security with emphasis on welfare status variable and investigating the rate societal security at present conditions


Security and Criteria I


For measuring and evaluation of any phenomenon and event we need a criterion or standard. Security too needs a measure in belief of negativists this is "amount of power and ability to confront risks".

In positivists' viewpoint the safety criteria is "amount of access to opportunities, interests, and capitals" and in other words amount of having welfare and enjoyment of desirable life quality.
"In sociology, regarding security levels, since societies are based on mutual dealings, interactions and interrelations between their members and also with other societies, it is possible to consider "type of mutual interactions" as a criterion for recognition. Mutual interactions and relations are different in three levels of security those are survival, development and satisfaction, liberation and beauty.
Accordingly, interactions in survival level focus on "process of cooperation and competition on life chances".
If codes of conduct provide cooperation and competition to gain life chances in formal frameworks codified into rules and terms, then we could claim that societal security at survival level is realized… Obviously, changing the interactions from cooperation and competition form to violent and discriminatory relations will result in less realization of societal security.

Development and satisfaction level is based on life styles, that is to say if societies progress more and more along required styles and methods, then they could more cultivate their abilities and could gain more satisfaction; if societies have many problems to choose life style, then they would have more limitations to extend their proficiency and would gain less satisfaction. Thus, development and satisfaction depends on "amount of dominance and being dominated interactions"… That is to say less involvement of societies in atmosphere of dominance and being dominated means they have more choices and options and societal security flourishes better; and more involvement means they have no choices and options and societal security flourishes much less. But in liberation and beauty level, realization of societal security is determined by "amount of monopolist and pluralist interrelations".

In this level, societies would aim at liberation and understanding of beauty when examine their realization politics and select among them one which results in society flourishing. Life politics include two general types: monopolist and pluralist, and no one means without another one… If societies are led to just one of these interactions, then societal security would more fade there (Navidnia: 2009, 78)".

Source: Navidnia, Manijeh (2009) "Societal Security", Tehran: Research Institute of  Strategic Studies.
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