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Security Priorities of Citizens in Various Zones of Tehran
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
With emphasis on security models and considering utilization mode of various city places in Tehran, this survey studies the citizens' status in these places in regard of their security priorities

Police, Security and Family Institution
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
In modern society, family is not an autonomous and self governed institution and essentially depends on other institutions to supply many of its requirements, as it needs the police to provide security.

The Analysis of Relationship Between Social Conditions and Security Discourses
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
This article attempts to study the type of prevalent discourse in securitization of society with emphasis on social conditions

The police perspective; security and social capital
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
The police as one of the main supporters of security have a remarkable place and there is no doubt about perspective of its future role and function.

The Analysis of Relationship Between Situations of Walfare and Societal Security, A Study in Tehran
Dr. Manijeh Navidnia
This research is studying the societal security with emphasis on welfare status variable and investigating the rate societal security at present conditions


Security and Instrumental Rationality I


Instrumental rationality includes assessment and evaluation of tools needed to achieving goals through rules and terms. In other words, it is assessment of cost and benefit of transactions and dealings by the official norms. So instrumental rationality is law based and evaluates individuals by their instrumental effectiveness and does not accept violation of the rules with any reason and argument.
In Marx Weber belief, instrumental rationality was a positive process in spreading bureaucracy entities in capitalist society, but he resembles its hegemony on entire social life to iron cage that prisons persons who are bound in rigid regulation. Benefits of using instrumental rationality such as accurate appraisal of profits, reduce waste of time and force, estimated amount of competence and skills, establish order and clear criteria, determine the range of duties and responsibilities, detection of rights and powers, estimate how achieve the goal according to the possibilities and limitations, help instrumental rationality to be pioneer in human relations and most of the plans and goals have been accomplished by it. So that governments have used instrumental rationality to provide security and positivist school has entirely an instrumental approach to security issue. But "over time, state sovereignty as the exclusive power has been questioned and will to the decentralization and multi-polarization of power has provoked too much conflicts and challenges about the legitimacy of the government in the form of various types of democracy. Also stresses that the government was applying on citizens only in order to maintain its interests, made doubts about the government authority to protect citizens.
To solve these challenges, the government-nation system tended toward "serving the people" instead of "governing the people". So that the welfare states of northern societies are mentioned as "gardeners" (Navidnia: 2006, 56)".
With a change in attitude and performance of governments, security was also changed and with planning hardware and software security, inherent and practical rationality put in the agenda and in this regard social security was considered as an important aspect. "There is long time that separation of rational actions from emotional actions and what expects from human interactions has occurred… By this severe domination of rational actions, living world was forgotten for a while… For long time, human has ignored family, ethnicity, language, family traditions, friendly and heartfelt societies, with the price of occupational concerns and domination of economic values… human has today another concern: "who does love us as we are?" Who could love us as whites or blacks, Kurd or Turk, man or woman, strong or week, everyone we are? Who does respect our connections and attachments? Who does honor our affiliations and interests, recognize our rights, and not withhold privileges and benefits from us? These attachments and affiliations that are not define in the context of rationality and are combined with passion, excitement and emotions and exorcize the life from rigid calculations, are the subject of societal security… societal security belongs to living world, not rationality world (Navidnia: 2006: 62)".

Source: Navidnia, Manijeh (2006) "Theoretical Consideration on Societal Security with Emphasis on Types of Security",Tehran, Strategic Studies Quarterly, Research Institute of Strategic Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, spring.
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